ART AND CALLIGRAPHY


ART AND CALLIGRAPHY
Safed Landscape, 1950, by Menachem Shemi (18961951), Israeli painter. Oil on canvas, 50 65 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Purchased through the Batsheva Fund LOmanuth vHaskala., Israeli painter. Oil on canvas, 50 65 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Purchased through the Batsheva Fund LOmanuth vHaskala.") Safed Landscape, 1950, by Menachem Shemi (1896–1951), Israeli painter. Oil on canvas, 50 × 65 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Purchased through the Batsheva Fund L'Omanuth v'Haskala. Photo © The Israel Museum.   THROUGHOUT THE TWENTIETH CENTURY THERE HAS BEEN SOME DEBATE AS TO WHAT MAKES A WORK OF ART "JEWISH." DOES THE ART HAVE TO CONTAIN JEWISH THEMES AND IMAGES, OR IS THE FACT THAT THE ARTIST IS JEWISH ENOUGH TO CALL IT JEWISH ART? JEWISH ART THAT FITS EITHER DEFINITION IS PRESENTED HERE TO SHOW ITS DIVERSITY, INCLUDING A SAMPLER OF CALLIGRAPHIC WORK THAT WAS CREATED DURING THE LATTER PART OF THETWENTIETH CENTURY, WHEN THERE WAS A RENEWED INTEREST IN THE APPLICATIONS OF HEBREW CALLIGRAPHY.   Nimrod, 1939, by Yitshak Danziger (19161977), Israeli sculptor, born in Germany. Nubian sandstone, 95 33 33 cm. Gift of Dr. David H. Orgeler, Zurich and Jerusalem. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem., Israeli sculptor, born in Germany. Nubian sandstone, 95 33 33 cm. Gift of Dr. David H. Orgeler, Zurich and Jerusalem. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.") Nimrod, 1939, by Yitshak Danziger (1916–1977), Israeli sculptor, born in Germany. Nubian sandstone, 95 × 33 × 33 cm. Gift of Dr. David H. Orgeler, Zurich and Jerusalem. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, by Nahum Slapak.     Proverbs 31. Womanof Valor (Eshet Chayil), Hebrew calligraphy, by Kalman Freidus., Hebrew calligraphy, by Kalman Freidus.") Proverbs 31. "Womanof Valor" (Eshet Chayil), Hebrew calligraphy, by Kalman Freidus.   Double Red Yentl, Split (My Elvis), 1993, by Deborah Kass (1952), American painter. Screenprint and synthetic polymer on canvas, 1835 1829 cm. Courtesy the artist. The Jewish Museum, NYArt Resource, NY., 1993, by Deborah Kass (1952), American painter. Screenprint and synthetic polymer on canvas, 1835 1829 cm. Courtesy the artist. The Jewish Museum, NYArt Resource, NY.") Double Red Yentl, Split (My Elvis), 1993, by Deborah Kass (1952–), American painter. Screenprint and synthetic polymer on canvas, 1835 × 1829 cm. Courtesy the artist. The Jewish Museum, NYArt Resource, NY.     Purim paper cut, 1985, by Daniel Howarth, with a fish, the symbol of the month of Adar, and text from Esther 8:17. Daniel Howarth. Purim paper cut, 1985, by Daniel Howarth, with a fish, the symbol of the month of Adar, and text from Esther 8:17. © Daniel Howarth.   The main gate of the Knesset, Jerusalem, 1966, by David Palombo (19201966), Israeli sculptor. Photo: Shlomo Gafni, Jerusalem., Israeli sculptor. Photo: Shlomo Gafni, Jerusalem.") The main gate of the Knesset, Jerusalem, 1966, by David Palombo (1920–1966), Israeli sculptor. Photo: Shlomo Gafni, Jerusalem.     Self-Portrait, 1918, by Chaim Soutine (18931943), born in Russia, active in France. Oil on canvas. Corbis., born in Russia, active in France. Oil on canvas. Corbis.") Self-Portrait, 1918, by Chaim Soutine (1893–1943), born in Russia, active in France. Oil on canvas. © Corbis.     Prophecy, 1956, by Lee Krasner (19081984), American painter. Oil on cotton duck. The Pollock-Krasner FoundationArtists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York., American painter. Oil on cotton duck. The Pollock-Krasner FoundationArtists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York.") Prophecy, 1956, by Lee Krasner (1908–1984), American painter. Oil on cotton duck. © The Pollock-Krasner Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York.     Rosh Ha-Shanah, text of the Akedah, the binding of Isaac. Simon Prais, Birmingham, England, 1986. Rosh Ha-Shanah, text of the Akedah, the binding of Isaac. Simon Prais, Birmingham, England, 1986.     Untitled, 1967, by Mark Rothko (19031970), American painter, born in Russia. Oil on paper, mountedon canvas. Philadelphia Museum of ArtCorbis., American painter, born in Russia. Oil on paper, mountedon canvas. Philadelphia Museum of ArtCorbis.") Untitled, 1967, by Mark Rothko (1903–1970), American painter, born in Russia. Oil on paper, mountedon canvas. © Philadelphia Museum of Art/Corbis.   Cover of Maus I: A Survivors TaleMy Father Bleeds History, 1986, a graphic novel by Art Spiegelman, American illustrator. Copyright 1973, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986 by Art Spiegelman. Cover of Maus I: A Survivor's Tale/My Father Bleeds History, 1986, a graphic novel by Art Spiegelman, American illustrator. Copyright © 1973, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986 by Art Spiegelman.   King Solomon and Asmodeus, 1920s, by Zeev Raban (18901970), Israeli painter, born in Poland. Watercolor, pencil, pen and ink on paper, 221 219 cm. Copyright, the Doron Family, Jerusalem., Israeli painter, born in Poland. Watercolor, pencil, pen and ink on paper, 221 219 cm. Copyright, the Doron Family, Jerusalem.") King Solomon and Asmodeus, 1920s, by Ze'ev Raban (1890–1970), Israeli painter, born in Poland. Watercolor, pencil, pen and ink on paper, 221 × 219 cm. Copyright, the Doron Family, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, by Meidad Suchowolski.   Half Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA SECOND EDITION VOLUME 3 BA–BLO FRED SKOLNIK, Editor in Chief MICHAEL BERENBAUM, Executive Editor Copyright Page copyright page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 ©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Gale, is a part of The Cengage Learning Inc. Cengage, Burst Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems – without the written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this product, submit your request via Web at http://www.gale-edit.com/permissions, or you may download our Permissions Request form and submit your request by fax or mail to: Permissions Department <address> Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning 27500 Drake Road Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 </address> Permissions Hotline: (+1) 248-699-8006 or 800-877-4253 ext. 8006 Fax: (+1) 248-699-8074 or 800-762-4058 Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all copyright notices, the acknowledgments constitute an extension of the copyright notice. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. — 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 4 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865941-4 (vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 18: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865949-X (vol. 21: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 1\. Jews — Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- DS102.8.E496 2007 909′.04924 — dc22      2006020426 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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